Tuesday, August 25, 2020

A comparison of wine cultures between United Kingdom and Hong Kong Literature review - 1

An examination of wine societies between United Kingdom and Hong Kong residents - Literature survey Example They further expressed that the creation of food and wine is a worldwide marvel. Varriano (2011) included that wine had showed its uniqueness in the way of life and history of food and drink that initially began in the old Greece and Rome civilisations. It is increasingly basic to practically all types of religion as they utilize this in their love (Deutsch and Saks 2008). Today, the wine business is quickly developing alongside the ascent of the globalization (Anderson and Nelgen 2008). To be sure, wine has assumed a critical job in the lives of wine consumer’s route back previously and up to the present and later on. As indicated by crafted by Estreicher (2004), wine has assumed an essential job in the establishment of Western civilisation. He further included that wine is an enchanted extraordinary antiquated mixed drink as per its relationship with divine beings and strict and otherworldly conventions. Sanchez (2008) further said that wine is considered by the old individuals, for example, the Greeks, Romans, Cretans and Egyptian as their day by day wares dated before Christ. These individuals are accustomed to leading grape blending in their family units separately. In the antiquated history of the creation of refining, wine is viewed as the best and best sterile. Besides, it is likewise rewarded as one of the most popular items for exchange the early Western civilisation alongside vine. In this manner, wine can be demonstrated as a critical as far as religion, medication, and exchange (Estreicher 2004). Such ideas and cases are additionally upheld by the article of Squicciarini and Swinnen (2 010) as the writers had uncovered that, even back in the bygone eras, wine has been utilized by the antiquated individuals in a few different ways and inside various purposes. For example, in China, Chinese people are utilizing wines for otherworldly purposes. This is additionally the equivalent with the Indian individuals where

Saturday, August 22, 2020


HOW USEFUL IS THE TERM CULTURAL REVOLUTION papers HOW USEFUL IS THE TERM CULTURAL REVOLUTION I propose to characterize and to contend the inquiry How valuable is the term Cultural Revolution when applied to the Sixties? My goal is to incorporate models from history, history of science and religion. Let us initially consider Arthur Marwicks choice to periodise the sixties from 1954 to 1975 and Eric Hobsbawms periodisation (inside his book Age of Extremes, written in 3 sections) with the sixties contained in the Golden Age. These dates of periodisation are positively fascinating speculation. War commanded the way of life existing toward the start of the twentieth Century, for example the 1914-18 War, followed a couple of years after the fact by the World War II 1939-45. Europe and Britain endured monstrous misfortunes of life. At that point came the spread of Communism after the World War II. America got distrustful about the spread of Communism, and in view of this went into a war with Vietnam; with unfortunate results; they lost a huge number of youngsters; and totally neglected to stop the spread. The Vietnam war reached a conclusion through individuals power. Nation wide mass fights were held; individuals were sickened by the quantities of lives lost, and they scrutinized the uselessness and ethical quality of war Then came the numerous dangers of worldwide destruction by the alleged super powers (America and Russia). In Britain, youngsters conceived toward the apocalypse War II were raised in a crippling monetary and social condition. They were instructed not to address; seen and not heard.. Adherence was given to the chapels severe good lessons; and the class framework was still profoundly dug in the public arena. Sex was not talked about straightforwardly; consequently, numerous youngsters were explicitly unpracticed and had almost no information on contraception. Youthful unmarried ladies who got pregnant outside marriage were excluded. The regular workers right now wer... <!

Friday, July 31, 2020

Ease the Financial Burden of Funding a Funeral

Ease the Financial Burden of Funding a Funeral Ease the Financial Burden of Funding a Funeral Ease the Financial Burden of Funding a FuneralApologies for getting a little grimDealing with the loss of a beloved friend or family member is one of the most difficult experiences we will all have to face at one point. The last thing you want to be doing during such a traumatic time is dealing with any sort of financial challenges. And yet…Funeral services are not cheap. And although this is likely not the first thought you have when you lose a loved one, there is always the possibility that the one who has passed was a source of financial support.“Would you believe funeral expenses in the United States average more than $10,000?” said Elizabeth Fournier, undertaker with Cornerstone Funeral Services and author of The Green Burial Guidebook. “Death can cause monetary misfortunes as well as misery. Budgeting for it isn’t about being morose â€" its about making crucial financial preparations to lessen the impact when it happens.”Josh Hastings, founder of Money Life Wax, sha red his personal experience of dealing with this kind of situation: “Be it a family member or even setting up a fund for your own funeral (which is scary to even think about), funerals are super expensive and super burdensome. At age 25 I, unfortunately, had to deal with the loss of a parent. One of the most difficult times in my life was losing my mom; however, making matters worse was covering funeral expenses and stressing over the costs.”While it is not a fun process to think about, it is important to start thinking about funeral costs before you are actually dealing with them. As paying for a funeral is one of the only expenses you can be sure will come due one day, it is never too early to look into your options.Here are some of those options.Prepayment optionsOne way to avoid the strain of figuring out funeral costs in the wake of a tragic death is to pay those costs well beforehand.“Many funeral homes offer prepayment plans,” said Kurt Hemry, president of Ironwood We alth Consultants. “With some of these plans, you will pay the current day price right now with a guarantee that at [the time of] your death, you will get what you want at no additional charge. The upside to this arrangement is that payment has been made and your family is spared that concern. Also, youre protecting yourself from the increasing costs due to inflation.”There is at least one additional factor to consider, however. If you happen to move away, there may be additional transportation expenses involved to relocate your remains when you die.If you do not want to worry about moving, you can also set aside the money on your own.“Instead of using a financial product, you can save for your funeral yourself,” insurance agent Travis Price suggested. “This gives you the most freedom concerning your money. These funds should be placed in a relatively stable financial account, like a certificate of deposit (CD), to accumulate interest and keep up with inflation.”Insurance Some people would not get car insurance if the law did not require it. Others would forgo health insurance (and some may in states where health insurance is no longer mandatory), but it is very unlikely that they will go the rest of their lives without getting sick. However, there’s one thing that is definitely guaranteed in life. And it is a very good idea to get insurance for it, if you can afford it.“An alternative to an annuity is a permanent life insurance policy,” Hemry explained. “Buy a policy with a death benefit large enough to pay for the funeral, but one that allows you to make much smaller monthly or annual premium payments. Regardless if you die sooner, or much later, the death benefit will cover the expenses.”Alternative choicesIt is also possible to save money by choosing less traditional funeral options.Fournier offered some cost-saving measures: “Many states allow a funeral home just to oversee and guide. People can provide their own transportation for t heir loved ones, build their own caskets, and even keep bodies at home.”If you want to save even more money and have a flexible view of the burial process, there is a very practical possibility you can explore.“You can donate your body to science or medical research,” Randy VanderVaate, owner and CEO of Funeral Funds, said. “Most costs will be eliminated by doing it this way, but you have to be comfortable with the thought of how your body will be used.”Needless to say, funerals are a financial burden on top of dealing with the grief of losing a loved one.” We just can’t say it enough: the sooner you start planning for the inevitable, the less you will have to worry about it later on.ContributorsElizabeth Fournier an undertaker with Cornerstone Funeral Services and author of The Green Burial Guidebook, the first book on the market to really break down all the natural burial choices available in North America. Follow her on Twitter @elizfournier.Josh Hastings  is a form er high school athletic director at the secondary level who shifted his focus to focus more effort on his entrepreneur endeavors in 2016. In 2017 he founded  MoneyLifeWax.com, a personal finance site dedicated to helping millennials with student loans. With an emphasis on money and finance behavior, he started Money Life Wax  to help millennials realize there are other ways to make money and be happy in the 21st century. Follow him on Twitter @moneylifewax.Kurt Hemry, president of Ironwood Wealth Consultants, has more than 32 years in the financial industry. His approach to retirement planning is giving the brush to his clients to paint the canvas of their ideal retirement. By understanding their picture-perfect retirement, he can build a plan that can best fit his client’s masterpiece.Travis Price is a licensed life and senior health insurance agent located in Traverse City, Michigan. He is licensed to offer insurance programs in Michigan, Texas, Virginia, Iowa, Illinois, and Sou th Carolina. He has been representing the insurance needs of seniors since 2012. You can visit his website at www.ifixmedicare.com.Randy  VanderVaate is the president and owner of Funeral Funds based out of Dallas, Texas. Licensed in all 50 states, Funeral Funds specializes in affordable burial insurance, final expense insurance, and life insurance for people ages 50-85. His goal is to eliminate the financial burden that a funeral, cremation, or other final expenses place on family members after the death of a loved one. VanderVaate can be reached at www.FuneralFunds.com.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Civil Rights - 971 Words

Civil Rights The struggle for equality has been a battle fought for hundreds of years amongst Native Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. When we hear the words civil rights often we conjure images of Martin Luther King Jr. delivering his soul-stirring â€Å"I Have a Dream† speech before the nation’s capital. The truth is, minorities have been fighting for their civil rights way before the 1950’s in fact it dates way back to the early 1880’s when Native Americans lost their lands, family, culture but most importantly their rights as human beings. America deprived Native Americans of their rights and ways of living by recruiting the young children to try and stop them from growing up to become â€Å"savages,† as the USA†¦show more content†¦These and other images are a testament to the intense burst of black activism and the resulting white backlash that characterized the civil rights movement of the mid twentieth century. The civil rights movement that spanned the years following the Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954 through the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 marked a watershed period that accomplished far more than the elimination of racial barriers; it led to the overwhelming transformation of American social, cultural, and political life. Changes to prevailing notions about the citizenship rights of blacks, for example, coupled with a redefinition of the role of the government and courts in protecting these rights; continue to bolster the human rights of all Americans, regardless of their skin color. The American civil rights movement left a permanent mark on American society. The most evident forms of racial discrimination came to an end, and racial violence declined immeasurably. Today, African Americans can freely exercise their right to vote, and in communities where blacks were once banned from the polls, blacks are elected to public offices. Millions of blacks, too, have been lifted out of poverty as a result of the many economic opportunities created by the civil rights movement. Also important, the civil rights movement served as a model for the advancement of other minority groups, including women, the disabled, gays, and many others.Show MoreRelatedCivil Rights And Civil Rights Essay1087 Words   |  5 PagesGovernment 2305 7 OCT 2017 Civil rights verses civil liabilities. Civil rights entail the basic need to be free from unequal treatment based on characteristics such as gender, race, nationality and disability among others. Civil rights are political rights, economic rights and social rights that are entitled to every citizen by birth in order to participate fully without oppression or discrimination against. Civil rights violation occurs in almost all phases of human rights. In case of employment peopleRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement1286 Words   |  6 PagesThe Civil Rights movement is one of the most important acts to change the way not only African Americans were able to live their lives but all races and colors. It would slowly break down the social, economic, political, and racial barriers that were created by the The Age of Discovery and Transatlantic Slave trade. I believe without the Civil Rights acts our country would result to be no better than what it was when the Emancipation Proclamation just took effect. In the 1950s and long befo re, SouthernRead MoreWomans Civil Right1308 Words   |  6 PagesA Women’s Civil Right The speech †A Women’s Civil Right† was written in 1969 and the feminist author Betty Friedan delivered it. Betty Friedan was a proponent of the modern women’s movement and claimed that women in 1969 and onwards should not be trapped in the stereotypical housewife role. Friedan was convinces that social barriers in the society kept women imprisoned in â€Å"the housewife trap†. She wanted women to have better career opportunities, introduce equality with men and to eliminate theRead MoreCivil Rights And Civil Liberties1025 Words   |  5 PagesJennyfer Tshilanda Professor Sharifian Government 2305 September 28th, 2017. 1 Civil rights vs Civil liberties 1. 2 Define Civil Liberties; then define Civil Rights. How are they similar? How do they differ? Which civil sequence has more influence on your life as you know it to be now? Why do you believe this to be so? Civil rights and civil of liberties have regularly been the discussion of different locales throughout the years. In the achievement of social liberties and freedoms, laws and statutoryRead MoreThe Rise Of The Civil Rights Movement1179 Words   |  5 Pagesthat arose in the 1960s, there are three movements that truly affected the American society. Firstly, the rise of the civil rights movement was greatly influenced by racial discrimination of colored people in the South. Secondly, the women’s movement aimed to convince the society that women are capable of achieving and maintaining higher waged job like males. Lastly, the gay rights movement aimed to gain acceptance and stop discrimination of homosexuality. The most significant effect on the developmentRead MoreCivil Liberties And Civil Rights1081 Words   |  5 Pages1 McGahey 3 Megan McGahey Sherry Sharifian GOVT 2305 71430 20 September 2017 Civil Liberties vs. Civil Rights In the U.S. most use the terms Civil Liberties and Civil Rights interchangeably; although they both protect the freedom of citizens they do this in different ways. 2 Civil Liberties are limitations placed on the government. These are things the government is restricted to do, by the constitution. Things that could interfere with personal freedom. 3 For example, the 1st amendment says thatRead MoreThe American Civil Rights Movement1519 Words   |  7 PagesAmerican Civil Rights Movement is personified through several prominent personalities. These figures exhibited strong character throughout their careers in activism that revolutionized the ideals and opportunities of the 20th century, standing as precedents for courage and perseverance in the face of widespread systemic oppression. However, not all of these figures received the acknowledgment and acceptance that their legacy deserved. One such figure was Bayard Rustin, a lifelong Civil Rights activistRead MoreReasons F or The Civil Rights Movement1436 Words   |  6 PagesWhen did the Civil Rights Movement begin in earnest in Buffalo? The Civil Rights Movement In Buffalo was weak and many people were quiet and conservative. It was less a Movement than a group of scattered individuals, primarily black and Jewish. This Civil Rights Movement happened in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. Some people believed that this movement began in Western New York. African Americans faced many social problems during this time period, which demonstrated the significance of organizingRead MoreCivil Rights And Civil Liberties1009 Words   |  5 Pages29 September 2017 Civil Liberties are basic freedoms and rights that are guaranteed to us by the government through the Constitution, Bill of Rights, and the Federal Law (â€Å"Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties.†). Whether they are freedom of speech or a right to an attorney, these basic rights are a right to all of us. 1 Civil rights are the basic rights to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics (race, gender, disability, etc. ) (â€Å"Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties.†). WhetherRead MoreCivil Rights Movement823 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction: This paper is about the blacks wanting equal rights like the whites have.Then everything gets out of hand.The fire truck hoses get used on people,the k-9 dogs go attack the people, people go to jail. King goes to jail and writes a report and gets out of jail. Finally, Birmingham takes down the â€Å"blacks only† and â€Å"whites only† signs from the bathroom and drinking fountains. Blacks now can use any bathroom and drinking fountain they want. The SCLC launched Project C† (for Birmingham)

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Standardized Testing Is Defined By Standardized Test...

Standardized Testing is defined by Standardized Test Definition as, â€Å"any form of test that (1) requires all test takers to answer the same questions, or a selection of questions from common bank of questions, in the same way, and that (2) is scored in a ‘standard’ or consistent manner, which makes it possible to compare the relative performance of individual students or groups of students.† This formality of testing was introduced in 1845 by educational pioneer, Horace Mann. Mann’s vision for these test, that was made originally for students to prove their obtained knowledge through the tests, was to perfect the best teaching methods so that every student had equal opportunities. The present-day standard tests, like SAT and ACT, were†¦show more content†¦It also authorized students to be evaluated on their knowledge and skills and not take their restriction in ethnical background or their current situation that day into account. The machine al so allows for tests to be graded on a large scale since standardized tests are used worldwide. Another aspect that proved to negatively impact the test is how quantifiable the results used are. Many standardized tests are similarly labeled under Criterion-Referenced. Criterion-Referenced tests are are tests that measure a student’s ability in specific criterias, a popularly known used test in elementary and middle school is the MAP(Measures of Academic Progress) test that focuses on the basic knowledge of Mathematics, English, Science, Reading, and Writing. In all of those criterias the test is restrictive to what the student should know and later on which causes the inability to solve problems on a creative level but on â€Å"standard† level. These tests at points proved to be useful for the goal it was established for but it was established by politicians who believed it will furthermore improve our education system. Standardized testing, federal level, is leading in more student anxiety than local level tests. Spector points out that â€Å"six in ten school psychologists said the Common Core learning standards, which includes state exams for students in third through eighth grades each April, has increased students’ anxiety†. Spector also states in his newsletter from one of hisShow MoreRelatedThe Negative Effects Of Standardized Testing871 Words   |  4 PagesThe Negative Effects of Standardized Testing The purpose of the No Child Left Behind Act is designed to close the achievement gap between high/low performing children and improve/strengthen accountability amongst schools (Department of Education). As a result, the Department of Education has implemented a sanctions and rewards system, stipulated in the No Child Left behind Act. If schools do not perform according to the act, funding will be withdrawn, teachers and administrators could get laid offRead MoreStandardized Testing Should Be Standardized Tests1329 Words   |  6 Pageseverybody in this generation has taken a standardized test in some level of schooling. A standardized test is defined as a â€Å"test that requires all test takers to answer the same questions, or a selection of questions from a common bank of questions, in the same way, and that is scored in a standard or consistent manner, which makes it possible to compare the relative performance of individual students or groups of students† (â€Å"Standard ized Test Definition†). There is lots of debate around the countryRead MoreStandardized Tests Are Not A Success1347 Words   |  6 PagesStandardized Tests are Not a Success Standardized testing has been ruling over the lives of students, making or breaking them in their education without fair judgement. Tests like the SAT and the ACT count for way too much when applying to colleges, which in turn limits the student s capabilities to thrive in an environment that would benefit them. There are many problems within a standardized test that deems them to be unreliable as a true test of knowledge. Although designed to test groups ofRead MorePsychological Testing1277 Words   |  6 PagesPsychological Testing Heather Kramer University Of Phoenix PSY/475 Psychological Tests and Measurements John Papazafiropoulos 3/9/2009 Psychological Testing Hogan (2003, pg. 15) offer four central assumptions that are made by individuals in regard to psychological testing they are as follows, â€Å"peopleRead MoreTesting Anxiety Has A Major Effect On The Outcome Of Student s Placement On Standardized Tests1216 Words   |  5 PagesTesting anxiety has a major effect on the outcome of student’s placement on standardized tests. Throughout my education experience I have struggled with taking tests. Furthermore, tests have affected the outcome of my educational career. On the other hand, I have overcame those hardships because of the opportunities I was given. Well, Mike Rose in â€Å"I Just Wanna Be Average† understands what it feels like to be misplaced. Throughout that time period, Mike Rose’s test and some other person with theRead MoreStandardized Tests Should Not Be The Standard1321 Words   |  6 Pagesexceptionally well on standardized tests. Whether it was the WKCE, the PSAT, or the SAT, I excel led at multiple choice, fill-in-the-bubble tests. When it came time for me to take the ACT, I knew going into it that I had that test in the bag. I came out with much better than average scores, scoring a 28 on the overall test, much better than most of my peers. Though math was never my strongest subject in high school, I had still managed to pull a score of 25 on the math section of the test. When I got toRead MoreUsing Group Activities As Formative Assessment Essay1474 Words   |  6 PagesMathematics Classroom The modern educational system is characterized by an increase demand for accountability and high-stakes testing. The demand for such accountability and testing is demonstrated in the quest for the use of summative assessments that provide a summary of the learning progress of students. Generally, the push for increased accountability and high-stakes testing has contributed to the use of different kinds of assessments that are administered at the state, district, school, and nationalRead MoreIdentification And Programming For Gifted Learner1281 Words   |  6 Pagesleast two of the pioneers of the IQ testing movement and explain their contributions to the field Two of the pioneers of the IQ testing movement I chose were Alfred Binet (who collaborated with his colleague Theodore Simon and Lewis Terman who also worked with Binet on the American version. Alfred Binet is a French psychologist who is known to have developed the very first practical intelligence test which became the basis for contemporary intelligence tests. He worked with a young medical studentRead MoreHow Different Psychologists Defined Intelligence935 Words   |  4 Pages Mrs. K June 24,2015 How Different Psychologists Defined Intelligence For many people, the definition of intelligence on an individual is that whom stand out based on their educational accomplishments,ability to perform a hard fast fast and efficiently, and clever remarks. For psychologists;however, a simple definition isn’t sufficient to come to an agreement of the definition of intelligence , hence their developed theories. Some of the contributors to theoriesRead MoreI Are Not Special By David Mccullough Jr., An English Teacher And Son Of A Pulitzer Prize1466 Words   |  6 Pagesgenerations and America’s educational system insist upon our country’s youth. In other words, maintaining a 4.0 GPA, playing three high school sports, and excelling in music or drama does not make an individual extraordinary anymore. Individuality is defined as the quality or character of a particular person or thing that distinguishes them from others of the same kind. Now, if these standard expectations in school and extracurriculars are co ntinued to be enforced, individuality will become obsolete.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini Free Essays

Physical geography has a major Influence to the story. The themes of geography that mainly pertain to the story are Place, Human/ Environmental Interactions, and Movement. Place can have physical and human characteristics. We will write a custom essay sample on Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini or any similar topic only for you Order Now The physical geography of Afghanistan changed after the wars and the Taliban attacks. For example, before in the â€Å"old days the wind swept through the irrigated plains around Islamabad where farmers grew sugar cane and the sweetness impregnated the air. † Now there were narrow road and dries up gutters. In Kabul when Hosannas and Emir were young boys, they used to run up hills surrounded by Poplar and Pomegranate trees. Treetops could be seen poking from behind the houses as they played. Now most of the trees were gone used as wood for lumber to keep Taliban from hiding. Where before you could fins street vendors and restaurants, now there are only dusty roads, abandoned buildings, and beggars. The number of beggars and orphaned children increased after the wars. The change in this geographical sense changed the way of life of the Afghan’s because now they were homeless because their houses were taken over by â€Å"guest† as the referred to the Taliban. They were left without Jobs, ways of growing crops and providing for their families. The war left omen and children husbandly and fatherless. Another theme of geography that pertains is movement. Because of the war, people were forced to relocate. Those that had money fled from Afghanistan. Babe and Emir left from Kabul dictatorial and into a foreign country, America, in hope of a better future. In Afghanistan they were the aristocratic class and In America they became the working class. The following ethnic groups represented In Kite Runner are Afghans. Pakistanis, Arabs, Palestinian, Iranians, Russians, and Germans. The major ethnic groups represented are the Afghans’ divided into two major groups, the Hazard’s and the Pushpins, and the Pakistanis. The Hazard’s are outsiders according to other Afghans because of their Mongolia indigenous people of eastern and southeast Asia and Arctic region. They are also considered outsiders because the Hazard’s are Shiite Muslims In a mostly Sunnis Muslim nation. The Pushpins are the dominant ethnic group In Afghanistan accounting for more than half of the population. The Pushpins are Sunnis Muslims in a Sunnis Muslim Nation. The majority of Pakistanis practice Islam. Islam governs their personal, legal, political and economic parts of their life. Pakistanis live in a hierarchical society and are respect because of age and position. There are many examples of their conflicts during the course of the novel. One example Is when Hosannas finds his mother’s history book and starts reading it. In the book he finds an inure chapter about the Hazards and how they were persecuted and oppressed by the Pushpins. When he takes it to his teacher, he replies, â€Å"That’s the one thing Shih’s people do well, passing themselves as martyrs. † This show how they differ and how they dislike each other. Another example is when the teacher ells Emir, that Iranians are â€Å"grinning smooth talkers who patted you on the back with one hand and picked your pocket with the other. † This shows how they dislike each other even though the Iranians, Like the Hazards, are Shih’s Muslims. Another example with me in Mazda†¦ We left them out for the dogs†¦ † This shows that the Taliban could not put away their differences and they had so much hatred that they believed the Hazards were as significant as animals. The novel faithfully matches the reality of its time. Throughout the book, it mentions dates important to the plot but also events that happened in reality. For example, it leaked about King Mohammad Sahara Shah being sent away to Italy and being overthrown by his cousin Mohammad Doodad Khan in 1973. When further research was done, it proved to be correct with actual events. Another example of this was when the book mentions that the Taliban took over and massacred the Hazard’s in 1998. After further studies, it proved to be accurate with the real events. Another factual event illustrated in the novel was when it mentions the United States boycotting the Olympic Games in Moscow in 1980. After research, it is proven that the facts given in the novel match the events that actually occurred. How to cite Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

The importance of maintaining confidentiality

Information obtained from individuals who are undergoing marriage/family counseling should always be treated with privacy. This practice is known as confidentiality. Professionals who offer counseling services to clients are the only one expected to have access to the confidential data. In all counseling sessions, clients should be made to feel secure and comfortable even before they begin sharing their experiences with the counselor. If clients feel intimidated or insecure in any way, the counseling process cannot get along as expected.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The importance of maintaining confidentiality specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Worse still, the client cannot receive any workable emotional or psychological assistance if the privacy of information shared cannot be guaranteed. The ability to maintain confidentiality of information obtained from clients is a critical ethical component since it is i llegal to share private data without consent from the affected party, the client being counseled can hardly share personal information if it will not be kept confidential, and it also leads to gross counseling failure since the patient cannot receive the required help. Although some counselors argue that verbal information can be shared out especially if it does not infringe the rights of clients, it is completely unethical to do so. Both verbal and written information obtained from clients undergoing marriage counseling should be treated with high level of confidentiality (Melton, 1997). In any case, all forms of information obtained from counseling sessions are usually very sensitive and can lead to gross mistrust as well as poor relationship development among the parties involved. It is perhaps necessary to begin by exploring what can be considered to be confidential or private in a marriage/counseling process. Some of the examples of sensitive information that can be shared out include infidelity problems between partners or spouses, emotional trauma arising from deep family wrangles, serious medical problems that impede procreation, infertility and stigma arising from an embarrassing infection (Mulligan, 1996). We cannot imagine such type of information being shared out to third parties without the consent of the client being counseled. It can be disastrous to both the counselor and recipient of the services if delicate data of such magnitude is accessed by the public and other uninterested parties. There are ethical standards that ought to be followed keenly when applying the concept of confidentiality on the records of clients undergoing counseling sessions (Melton, 1997). Although breach of confidentiality is a common experience in most counseling institutions, it is prudent to mention that the privacy of patients can only be tampered with when the mental health condition of the affected person is at high risk. Needless to say, exposing confidential da ta should only take place when there is looming danger. Professional marriage counselors may plunge themselves into costly law suits if they breach the privacy of their clients.Advertising Looking for essay on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are several factors that have hindered full application of ethical standards. For instance, lack of clear guidelines or legislations in some jurisdictions and counseling facilities is a major setback. Even in the absence of strict legislations in place, breach of privacy can be minimized with the assistance of staff members who have undergone thorough capacity building and training on ethical standards (Melton, 1997). A case study of the United States reveals that strict legislations have been adopted by both the state and federal authorities when it comes to privacy of counseling information obtained from clients. Both the Patient Bill of Rights and HIPAA have been passed by the legislature in order to protect the confidentiality of recipients undergoing counseling. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Acts (HIPAA) are instrumental in enhancing the privacy of counseling recipients. Even though confidentiality has been a critical issue in both of these pieces of legislations, the ability of a counseling institution to offer high quality care should be a vital part of the entire process. It is not possible for counseling experts to offer poor quality care while at the same time claim to be capable of protecting the privacy of clients (Melton, 1997). High quality counseling sessions should go a long way in addressing the innermost needs of clients especially in regards to confidentiality. Conclusion To recap it all, the ability to maintain confidentiality of information gathered from individuals undergoing counseling is a critical ethical factor bearing in mind that it is against the law to share private information without permission from the concerned party. In addition, the individual being counseled cannot easily share personal information if it will not be kept confidential. On the same note, it may culminate into gross counseling failure because the patient cannot obtain the required counseling assistance as anticipated. It is also vital to assert that marriage counselors should not harm clients in any way when obtaining, recording and distributing their data. This implies that a positive relationship should be developed between counselors and clients. In other words, both of them should have a common understanding on the type of information that can be shared with the third party without causing any gross risk to the patient. References Melton J.L. (1997). Sounding Board: The Threat to Medical-Records Research. New England Journal of Medicine, 337 (20), 1466-1469. Mulligan, D. (1996). Privacy and Health Information Systems: A Guide to Protecting Patient Confidentiality. Center for Democracy and Technology: Wash ington, D.CAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on The importance of maintaining confidentiality specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay on The importance of maintaining confidentiality was written and submitted by user Athena Zamora to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.